Researchers say identifying women with HPV types 16, 18 and 45 could improve early intervention to stop cervical cancer
No food processor wants pathogens contaminating the product in the plant for at least one obvious reason; the product on sale at retail might carry the risk of foodborne illness. Beyond that, it isn’t clear what are the chances that a consumer will become ill. Helen Jensen and colleagues are seeking to connect the dots
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As testing for high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) emerges as the gold standard in cervical cancer prevention, scientists are already researching how to determine even more precisely who is most likely to develop the disease and thus are in need of more immediate intervention.
Speaking at the EUROGIN (European Research Organization on Genital Infection and Neoplasia) conference THIS WEEK, experts presented data suggesting that the most effective strategy would be to introduce a second test to determine if women who test positive for high-risk HPV have one of three types of the virus that are associated with the highest mortality from cervical cancer: 16, 18 and 45.
About 30 HPV types are spread through genital contact, and about 18 of these can potentially cause cervical cancer. Each is “named” with a number, in the order of their discovery. Much attention has been paid to types 16 and 18, which account for 70 percent of all cervical cancers and against which the new HPV vaccines protect. However, experts say that medical evidence shows that type 45 should be a priority concern as well.
“Most of the focus has been on HPV types 16 and 18, because they are the most prevalent carcinogenic HPV types and are targeted by the new HPV vaccines,” comments Attila Lorincz, PhD, one of the originators of the HPV test and Professor at Barts and The London School of Medicine. “However, type 45 also is highly associated with risk, particularly for adenocarcinoma, a very aggressive type of cervical cancer with a mortality rate of 52% after five years — twice the rate of squamous-cell cancers. The incidence of invasive cervical adenocarcinoma, which used to account for 10-15 percent of all cervical cancers, has been steadily increasing — in part because it develops inside the cervical canal and thus is difficult to detect early using a Pap smear.”
Currently, there is one HPV test, developed by QIAGEN (Nasdaq: QGEN; Frankfurt, Prime Standard: QIA) and marketed as the digene HPV Test, which is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is CE-marked in Europe. When used for screening, it is given to women over the age of 30 along with a Pap test, which can find abnormal cells but cannot detect HPV directly. And now, QIAGEN is developing two types of follow-up tests that will identify specifically which types of the virus are carried by HPV-positive women. At EUROGIN this week, QIAGEN scientists are presenting the results of research showing the accuracy of the company’s digene HPV Genotyping PS Test, which specifically identifies the presence of types 16, 18 and 45. This assay is based on the technology used in QIAGEN’s front-line HPV screening test, hybrid capture 2 (hc2) — currently the gold standard in the field. In addition, data are being presented for a second QIAGEN assay, the digene HPV Genotyping RH Test, which identifies 18 types of potentially carcinogenic HPV. Prior to receiving CE marking in Europe, the genotyping tests will be made available for research use by laboratories and physicians exploring their potential clinical benefits. First to be available will be the digene HPV Genotyping RH Test, which is expected to be launched by the end of this year.
Currently, women who screen positive for high-risk HPV, but have normal Paps, are brought back for re-testing 12 months later, since it is only persistent infections that cause cancer. However, Dr. Lorincz explains that genotyping would allow women with HPV 16, 18 or 45 — who are at highest risk of cervical cancer — to be immediately examined further for the presence of pre-cancerous or cancerous cells.
As a part of National Cervical Health Awareness Month, Acting Secretary of Health Everette James has reminded women of the importance of cervical cancer prevention and the need for pap tests. “Every January as we begin a new year, we want to remind all Pennsylvanians to do what they can to improve their overall health,”
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The use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as an initial screening step followed by triage with a standard Pap test (cytology) and repeat HPV DNA testing may increase the accuracy of cervical cancer screening, according to a study in the Jan. 13 online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Compared to
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Professor Vivien Chen, PhD,. Associate Professor Xiao Cheng Wu, MD, PhD and Assistant Professor Edward Peters, DMD, SM, ScD, at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Public Health contributed five papers to the largest most comprehensive assessment of the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in the United States to date. The report,
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January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month and The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center shares important information about the cervical cancer screening exam, the Pap test. For many women, their annual Pap test is not something to look forward to; however, this test has the potential to make a huge difference in the
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Women living in the most deprived areas of England are nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer than their affluent counterparts - according to a report presented by national cancer director Professor Mike Richards at the Britain Against Cancer conference today (Tuesday). The report, published by the National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN),
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