Dieting may help reduce the risk of gum disease, mostly in men



Baxter International Inc. and Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. gas announced the start of a Phase 3 clinical trial of Baxter’s Gammagard Liquid [Immune Globulin Intravenous] 10% (IGIV), marketed as KIOVIG in the European Union, with Halozyme’s recombinant human hyaluronidase enzyme (rHuPH20, Enhanze Technology) for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency (PID). The purpose of this clinical trial is

Full Post: Phase 3 trial begins for Gammagard liquid plus rHuPH20 in primary immunodeficiency patients

For men, especially older men, dieting may help reduce the risk of gum disease more than for women, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore and other institutions.

The study, published in the journal Nutrition , also provides the latest clue to a powerful link between chronic inflammation and poor health, according to Mark Reynolds, DDS, PhD, associate professor at the Dental School, part of UMB.

“Chronic inflammation appears to be an important factor underlying aging and many age-related disorders, and dietary restriction has been shown to reduce the risk for chronic disease and promote longevity in multiple animal models,” says Reynolds, who is chair of the Department of periodontics at the School.

The study, of 81 rhesus monkeys at the National Institutes of Health, showed that males fed a diet of 30 percent fewer calories for 13 to 17 years had significantly lower levels of a gum-damaging condition known as periodontal pocketing, less immune response to invading bacteria, and higher inflammatory molecules than males fed a normal diet. Periodontal inflammation and disease start from bacteria.

Also, for the monkeys not fed the reduced-calorie diet, males showed “significantly greater periodontal breakdown” than females. Consistent with previous studies of humans, the monkeys in the study showed an increasing degree of gum problems as they aged.

Aging and obesity are associated with increased biological signs of overall inflammation and periodontal disease in humans, says Reynolds. Although about one-third of adults aged 30 to 90 have periodontitis, attempts to study humans directly have been hampered by the environmental complexities of oral diseases and factors such as smoking.

Non-human primates, such as rhesus monkeys, are an important model for studying inflammatory gum disease and oral infections in humans, says Reynolds.

Reynolds studies the role of inflammation in periodontal disease, including modifiable risk factors such as nutrition. Periodontal disease is one of the few inflammatory conditions that can be readily seen and studied in humans and other animals.

Reynolds was at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) before joining the faculty at the Dental School in 1999. Continuing research verified that the monkeys develop visible gum disease, and the NIA awarded John Novak, BDS, LDS, RCS, MS, at the University of Kentucky; Reynolds; and others a five-year grant for their study.

Men develop higher rates of periodontal and coronary heart disease than do women on the whole, says Reynolds. A major question has been: how much do modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity, contribute to the male-female gap? Or, is this difference in risk a natural occurrence between males and females? The monkey study seems to point to a genetic basis for the difference in risk, he says, reflecting underlying differences in how males and females respond to injury and inflammation.

He adds, “An understanding of such sex differences will become increasingly more important in the selection of treatments as we move toward personalized medicine based on individual genetic profiles.”

The study appears in the Oct. 15 online issue of Nutrition , and will appear in the January hard copy. Along with Novak and Reynolds, the study team included other researchers from the Maryland Dental School and the University of Kentucky, as well as researchers at the Virginia Commonwealth University, the National Institute of Aging, and Louisiana State University.

http://www.oea.umaryland.edu/

Link




The next person who reminds you to floss might be your cardiologist instead of your dentist. Scientists have known for some time that a protein associated with inflammation (called C-reactive protein) is elevated in people who are at risk for heart disease. But where’s the inflammation coming from? A new research study by Italian and

Full Post: Discovery of link between inflamed gums and heart disease



Individuals reporting a history of periodontal disease were more likely to have increased levels of inflammation, a risk factor for heart disease, compared to those who reported no history of periodontal disease, according to an American Journal of Cardiology report available online today. Led by investigators from Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, the

Full Post: Presence of gum disease may help dentists and physicians identify risk of cardiovascular disease



Scientists at the University of Michigan have shown that gene therapy can be used to successfully stop the development of periodontal disease, the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. The findings will be published online Dec 11 in advance of print publication in Gene Therapy . Using gene transfer to treat life threatening conditions

Full Post: Gene therapy used to treat periodontal disease



A genetic variation involving the brain chemical serotonin has been found to shape the social behavior of rhesus macaque monkeys, which could provide researchers with a new model for studying autism, social anxiety and schizophrenia. Humans and macaques are the only members of the primate family to have this particular genetic trait. “We have found

Full Post: Genetic variation cues social anxiety in monkeys and humans



Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University’s School of Dentistry have discovered a novel function of the peptide known as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in the development of the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve provides the signaling pathway for periodontal pain, dental surgical pain, and pain associated with temporomandibular disorder, trigeminal neuralgia, migraine, and other

Full Post: Discovery of mechanism for dental pain