Genes involved in antibiotic resistance vary within a species
A new paper released by The George Institute for International Health is warning a cardiovascular disease based epidemic is gaining pace among many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), exemplified at its worst in the world’s largest populated countries - China and India. Preventive cardiovascular treatments that are widely available in high income countries are not yet
Full Post: Escalating inequality in cardiovascular health status between rich and poor
The recent emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii, a bacteria that causes infections primarily among seriously ill patients in the intensive care unit who may have reduced immune systems, has raised concern in health care settings worldwide.
When comparing the genome sequence of three MDR A. baumannii isolates and three drug-susceptible A. baumannii isolates, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine found that one variation of bacteria would respond to antibiotics while another variation of the same bacteria may not.
A. baumannii is currently recognized by the Infectious Diseases Society of America as one of the most important pathogens threatening our health care delivery system.
Over the last 10-15 years, A. baumannii has become increasingly resistant to antibiotics and now more than one-third of infections are MDR, which means these pathogens are resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics. This pattern of resistance to many antibiotics limits the ability of physicians to treat serious infections caused by A. baumannii .
The study, led by Mark Adams, Ph.D., Associate Professor in the Department of Genetics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, is titled “Comparative Genome Sequence Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii “, and is in the December issue of the Journal of Bacteriology .
Adams first sequenced the genome of an MDR isolate and his collaborator in Buffalo, Steven Gill, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Oral Biology at SUNY Buffalo, sequenced two drug susceptible isolates to learn more about the genes (the genome contains the complete set of genes) that control resistance to antibiotics. Adams then compared the new sequence with genomes of other MDR and drug susceptible isolates, comparing six complete genomes.
What they found is that within a hospital or even a person, there can be a variation within the bacteria which means that it can affect how the infection reacts to antibiotics.
“A key conclusion of our study is that even very closely related isolates of A. baumannii can differ significantly in the set of resistance genes that they carry,” said Adams. “It is known that resistance genes can be shared between bacteria (horizontal gene transfer), and it appears that this is a frequent event, with genes entering a genome and being deleted even across a single outbreak.”
“We used to think-you treat this bacteria with this drug-but now we know that you have to look more carefully not just at the bacteria but at each one’s genetic characteristics,” said Adams. “This is an argument for targeted therapy in infectious disease because you want to select an antibiotic that will be effective against the particular genetic characteristics of the bug that’s causing the infection.”
The scientists also found that each isolate has a somewhat different set of genes.
“About three-fourths of the genes are shared by all the isolates, while the remainder are unique to different subsets,” said Adams. “We identified 475 genes that are shared by all six clinical isolates of A. baumannii but are not present in a closely related Acinetobacter species that does not cause infections. These genes merit further study to help figure out what makes A. baumannii able to live in association with humans and cause disease.”
Infectious disease experts warn that new drugs are urgently needed to treat six drug-resistant bacteria that cause most hospital infections and increasingly escape the effects of antibiotics. The ESKAPE pathogens - as these six bad bugs have been dubbed - are still on the loose more than four years after the Infectious Diseases Society of
Full Post: Six bad bugs increasingly escaping effects of antibiotics
In the same way that winter is commonly known to be the “flu season,” a new study suggests that the dog days of summer may well be the “bacterial infection” season. Researchers have discovered that serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria can go up as much as 17 percent with every 10 degree increase in
Full Post: Clear seasonal variation in bacterial infections
It’s as simple as A, T, G, C. Northwestern University scientists have exploited the Watson-Crick base pairing of DNA to provide a defensive tool that could be used to fight the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria — one of the world’s most pressing public health problems. The resistant nasty pathogens cause thousands of deaths
Full Post: Blocking mechanism found for antibiotic resistance in bacteria
A new species of bacterium that causes leprosy has been identified through intensive genetic analysis of a pair of lethal infections, a research team reports in the December issue of the American Journal of Clinical Pathology. All cases of leprosy, an ancient disease that still maims and kills in the developing world, previously had been
Full Post: Discovery of new species of bacterium that causes leprosy
When bacterial infections cause us to get really sick, the only way to get better is to go to the doctor. With the help of antibiotics, we can start to recover quickly. One such antibiotic is Augmentin which belongs to the penicillin family of drugs. A bacterial infection is different to a viral infection, therefore the
Full Post: Antibiotic Augmentin