Important relationship between fetal and adolescent alcohol experiences



A drug based on a chemical found in garlic can treat diabetes types I and II when taken as a tablet, a study in the new Royal Society of Chemistry journal Metallomics says. When Hiromu Sakurai and colleagues from the Suzuka University of Medical Science, Japan, gave the drug orally to type I diabetic mice,

Full Post: Garlic drug treats diabetes

Rats whose mothers were fed alcohol during pregnancy are more attracted to the smell of liquor during puberty.

Researchers writing in BioMed Central’s open access journal Behavioral and Brain Functions have shown that rats exposed during gestation find the smell of alcohol on another rat’s breath during adolescence more attractive than animals with no prior fetal exposure.

Professor Steven Youngentob from the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, USA, led a team of researchers who investigated the social and behavioral effects of fetal ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats. He said, “The findings by Amber Eade in my lab reveal that fetal ethanol exposure influences adolescent re-exposure, in part, by promoting interactions with intoxicated peers. These results highlight an important relationship between fetal and adolescent experiences that appears essential to the progressive development of alcohol abuse.”

Fetal ethanol experience is believed to train the developing sense of smell to find ethanol odor more attractive. The authors describe how, in both rats and humans, fetal exposure changes how the odor and flavor of ethanol are perceived. They write, ” Such learning may be a fundamental feature of all mammalian species because it is important (from a survival standpoint) for the pre-weanling animal to accept and be attracted to the food sources consumed by the mother”. In this study the authors found that rats unexposed to ethanol were significantly less likely to follow an intoxicated peer than those with gestational experience.

The authors also found that the behavioural effects of fetal ethanol were not seen in otherwise unexposed adult rats. They say that this shows adolescence is a key time for perpetuating fetal experiences. According to Youngentob, “Such a proposition is clinically relevant since, in humans, adolescence is a key transition point for emergent patterns of alcohol abuse”.

Speculating further on this study’s implications for human problem drinking, Youngentob added, “Within the context of ‘at risk’ adolescents, prior exposure to ethanol may, among other things, worsen the consequences of alcohol-related social interaction by increasing teenagers’ propensity to engage in such settings”.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/

Link




A Baylor University study has found that exposure during adolescence to moderate doses of alcohol in a binge-like fashion does in fact produce tolerance to high doses of alcohol later in life. Baylor researchers found that the alcohol a person might ingest when they are between 12 and 20, even at moderate doses, can alter

Full Post: Early alcohol use leads to tolerance to high doses of alcohol later in life



New research from University of California, Davis, shows why a species of tiny worm can learn to ignore an odor - information that could have implications for how human memories are formed. Scientists have known for decades that sensory neurons - nerves in places like our fingers, ears and eyes - begin the complex task of

Full Post: Odors can alter gene expression in an olfactory neuron



Humans and mice are attracted by the same odors. This has been revealed for the first time by a team of French researchers in the “Neurosciences sensorielles, comportement, cognition” Unit (CNRS / Université Lyon 1). Published on January 16, 2009 in the journal Plos One, their work confirms that olfactory preferences are not solely

Full Post: Mice and men express the same olfactory preferences



A study in rats shows that exposure to a high-fat diet during pregnancy produces permanent changes in the offspring’s brain that lead to overeating and obesity early in life, according to new research by Rockefeller University scientists. This surprising finding, reported in the Nov. 12 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience , provides a key

Full Post: High-fat diet during pregnancy makes new cells in fetal brain that cause early onset obesity



Raptor Pharmaceuticals Corp. has announced positive results in its Phase IIa study of oral 4-methylpyrazole (”4-MP”) in subjects with ALDH2 deficiency, or ethanol intolerance, as the initial development stage of its Convivia program. Convivia is Raptor’s proprietary oral formulation of 4-MP designed to reduce systemic acetaldehyde exposure and related symptoms in ALDH2 deficient persons following

Full Post: Raptor Pharmaceuticals announces positive results for Convivia program