Six more obesity genes identified
Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited and Eli Lilly and Company has confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee (CRDAC) will review prasugrel during an advisory committee hearing on February 3, 2009. Prasugrel is an investigational antiplatelet agent for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) who
Full Post: FDA to review prasugrel for acute coronary syndromes
The international GIANT (Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Parameters) consortium works on the discovery of obesity genes.
So far, the scientists have analyzed two million DNA variations in 15 genome-wide association studies with a total of more than 32,000 participants. The hereby identified candidate genes were validated in 14 further studies including 59,000 participants. In addition to the FTO and MC4R genes already known, it was now possible for six more obesity genes to be identified: TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2, and NEGR1.
Gene expression analyses have shown that all six genes are active in brain cells. Also the previously known two obesity genes, FTO and MC4R, show a similar expression pattern; in case of the MC4R gene, a genotype-dependant influence on the behavior of appetite is already established. Scientists of the German National Genome Research Network (NGFN), Prof. H.-Erich Wichmann and Dr. Iris Heid from the Helmholtz Zentrum M?, Institute of Epidemiology, who lead the German participation of this consortium, emphasize: “Definitely, the two main causes for obesity are poor nutrition and lack of physical activity. But the biology of these genes suggests genetic factors underlying the different reaction of people to lifestyle and environmental conditions.”
With the exception of the SH2B1 gene, which plays a role in the leptin signalling and thus in the regulation of appetite, none of the other five genes was hitherto discussed as obesity genes. Iris Heid and her collegue Claudia Lamina from the Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universit?M? are enthused: “The purely statistical approach of the genome-wide association analysis can depict new aspects of the biology of weight regulation, which were previously unanticipated.”
As a next step, the scientists evaluate other anthropometric measures, in order to shed light on different aspects of obesity. In addition, they will expand and include further studies into their analysis as they have realized that the individual studies are all too small, and only by means of collaboration, is it possible to achieve further success here.
In one of the largest studies of its kind, a multinational team led by scientists from deCODE genetics has reported the discovery of common variations at seven new sites in the human genome found to influence obesity. The study analyzed more than 300,000 single-letter variations (SNPs) across the genome of more than 30,000 people from
Full Post: Discovery of seven new sites in the human genome found to influence obesity
An international research team has identified 11 novel locations in the human genome where common variations appear to influence cholesterol or triglyceride levels, bringing the total number of lipid-associated genes to 30. While major mutations in some of these genes have been known to underlie rare lipid metabolism disorders, it is becoming apparent that common
Full Post: Discovery of 11 new gene sites that influence cholesterol or triglyceride levels
For years, scientists have struggled to decipher the genetic instruction book that details where and when the 20,000 genes in a human cell will be turned on or off. Different genes operate in each cell type at different times, and this careful orchestration is what ultimately distinguishes a brain cell from a liver or skin
Full Post: Model unravels rules that govern how genes are switched on and off
The metastasis or spread of breast cancer to other tissues in the body can be predicted more accurately by examining subnetworks of gene expression patterns in a patient’s tumor, than by conventional gene expression microarrays, according to a presentation at the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) 48th Annual Meeting, Dec. 13-17, 2008 in San
Full Post: Gene subnetworks provide new prognostic markers for breast cancer
A genetic study of more than 90,000 people has identified six new genetic variants that are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI), the most commonly used measure of obesity. Five of the genes are known to be active in the brain, suggesting that many genetic variants implicated in obesity might affect behaviour, rather than
Full Post: Six new gene variations linked to increased BMI