Vulnerability to post-traumatic stress runs in families
Researchers at The Cancer Institute of New Jersey (CINJ) have opened a clinical trial, which aims to evaluate a new treatment for solid cancer tumors and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in combination with a chemotherapy agent called cyclophosphamide. CINJ is a center of excellence of UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. This trial, sponsored by the National
Full Post: Trial looks at new treatment for solid cancer tumors and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Earthquakes have aftershocks - not just the geological kind but the mental kind as well. Just like veterans of war, earthquake survivors can experience post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety.
In 1988, a massive earthquake in Armenia killed 17,000 people and destroyed nearly half the town of Gumri. Now, in the first multigenerational study of its kind, UCLA researchers studying survivors of that catastrophe have discovered that vulnerability to PTSD, anxiety and depression runs in families.
Armen Goenjian, a research psychiatrist in the UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, and colleagues studied 200 participants from 12 multigenerational families exposed to the earthquake. Participants suffered from varying degrees of the disorders. The researchers found that 41 percent of the variation of PTSD symptoms was due to genetic factors and that 61 percent of the variation of depressive symptoms and 66 percent of anxiety symptoms were attributable to genetics. Further, they found that a large proportion of the genetic liabilities for the disorders were shared.
The research appears in the December issue of the journal Psychiatric Genetics .
“This was a study of multigenerational family members - parents and offspring, grandparents and grandchildren, siblings, and so on - and we found that the genetic makeup of some of these individuals renders them more vulnerable to develop PTSD, anxiety and depressive symptoms,” said Goenjian, a member of the UCLA-Duke University National Center for Child Traumatic Stress and lead author of the study.
In addition, Goenjian noted, the study suggests that a large percentage of genes are shared between the disorders.
“That tracks with clinical experience,” he said. “For example, in clinical practice, the therapist will often discover that patients who come in for treatment of depression have coexisting anxiety. Our findings show that a substantial portion of the coexistence can be explained on the basis of shared genes and not just environmental factors such as upbringing.”
The researchers used statistical methods to assess heritabilities. One method was used to determine the genetic component of a disorder such as PTSD. Then, a separate analysis was used to see if different phenotypes shared genes. The results showed that a significant amount of genes are shared between PTSD and depression, PTSD and anxiety, and finally depression and anxiety.
Until now, Goenjian said, the only studies that have suggested such a heritability of PTSD have been twin studies.
“It’s very hard to do family studies on PTSD because typically only single individuals, not whole families, are exposed to a particular trauma,” he said. “In our study, we were able to avert this problem since all the subjects were exposed to the same severe trauma at the same time.”
In fact, he said, the 200 participants all saw destroyed buildings throughout Gumri, 90 percent witnessed dead bodies left lying in the streets and 92 percent witnessed severely injured people.
The findings are promising for the next step in understanding the underlying biology of these disorders, which is locating the specific genes involved, Goenjian said.
Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to have metabolic syndrome than veterans without PTSD. New research published in the open access journal BMC Medicine has shown that after controlling for other factors such as depression or substance abuse, there is a significant association between metabolic syndrome and PTSD. Metabolic syndrome is composed
Full Post: Metabolic syndrome risk for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have for decades been regarded as two distinct psychotic disorders when it comes to definitions and risk factors. Schizophrenia is a psychotic illness that causes delusions and hallucinations - bipolar disorder also known as manic depression, causes extreme mood swings from deep depression to manic episodes. But now a study by
Full Post: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have same genetic causes
Though effective treatments are available for individuals suffering from chronic depression and anxiety, very little is known about how often these treatments are used or how prevalent these conditions are among the nation’s general population. But in a first-of-its-kind study, UCLA researchers have developed estimates for both the prevalence of chronic psychiatric illness in the
Full Post: 4.7 percent of U.S. population suffers from persistent depression or anxiety disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects as many as one in five of all Americans who survive a harrowing experience like rape, assault, war or terrorism. It has emotionally paralyzed survivors of 9/11 and broken up survivors’ families. There is no broadly accepted treatment that can lower the chance of developing the disorder, but thanks to
Full Post: New hope for post-traumatic stress disorder sufferers
Migraine headaches can precede the onset of mental disorders, according to a growing body of knowledge that includes a new study in the January-February 2009 issue of General Hospital Psychiatry. “Together, migraine and mental disorders cause more impairment than alone,” said lead study author Gregory Ratcliffe. “Patients who have one condition should be assessed for
Full Post: Migraines linked to mental disorders